Adams, G.B., and H.M. Stephens. 1901. Select Documents of English Constitutional History. Macmillan & Co., ltd.
Akbari, H. 2002. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants. Environmental Pollution 116 (2002) S119-S126.
Akbari, H., M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha. 2001. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy Vol. 70: 295-310.
Akbari, H., and S. Konopacki. 2004. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada. Energy 29: 191-210.
Al-AbdulWahhab, H.I., and F.A. Balghunaim. 1994. Asphalt pavement temperaturerelated to arid Saudi environment. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 6: 1-14.
Alberti, M., J.M. Marzluff, E. Shulenberger, G. Bradley, C. Ryan, and C. Zumbrunnen. 2003. Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems. Bioscience 53:1169-1179.
Alfani, A., F. De Nicola, G. Maisto, M.V. Prati. 2005. Long-term PAH accumulation after bud break in Quercus ilex L. leaves in a polluted environment. Atmospheric Environment 39: 307-314.
Allan, B.F., F. Keesing, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2003. Effect of Forest Fragmentation on Lyme Disease Risk. Conservation Biology 17: 267-272.
Anderson R.N., and H.M. Rosenberg. 1998. Age Standardization of Death Rates: Implementation of the Year 2000 Standard. National Vital Statistics Reports. Volume 47, No. 3. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Annual Energy Review 2006. U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/EIA-0384.
Arnfield, A.J. 2003. Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int. J. Climatol. 23: 1-26.
Ashmore, M.R. 2005. Assessing the future global impacts of ozone on vegetation. Plant, Cell and Environment 28: 949-964.
Ashworth, J.R. 1929. The influence of smoke and hot gases from factory chimneys on rainfall. Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society 55:341– 350.
Ashworth, J.R. 1944. Smoke and rain. Nature 154: 213–214.
Auerbach, B.M., and C.B. Ruff. 2004. Human Body Mass Estimation: A Comparison of “Morphometric” and “Mechanical” Methods. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 125:331-342.
Badarinath, K.V.S., T.R. Kiran Chand, K. Madhavi Latha, and V. Raghavaswamy. 2005. Studies on urban heat islands using ENVISAT AATSR data. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 33: 495–501.
Baldocchi, D., A. Guenther, P. Harley, L. Klinger, P. Zimmerman, B. Lamb, and H. Westberg. 1995. The Fluxes and Air Chemistry of Isoprene above a Deciduous Hardwood Forest. Philosophical Transactions: Physical Sciences and Engineering 351: 279-296.
Balmford, A., A. Bruner, P. Cooper, R. Costanza, S. Farber, R.E. Green, M. Jenkins, P. Jefferiss, V. Jessamy, J. Madden, K. Munro, N. Myers, S. Naeem, J. Paavola, M. Rayment, S. Rosendo, J. Roughgarden, K. Trumper, and R.K. Turner. 2002. Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature. Science 297: 950-953.
Bell, T.L., D. Rosenfeld, K.-M. Kim, J.-M. Yoo, M.-I. Lee, and M. Hahnenberger. 2008. Midweek increase in U.S. summer rain and storm heights suggests air pollution invigorates rainstorms. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D02209.
Bergstrom, J.C. 1990. Concepts and Measures of the Economic Value of Environmental Quality: a Review. Journal of Environmental Management 31: 215-228.
Bernard, S.M., J.M. Samet, A. Grambsch, K.L. Ebi, and I. Romieu. 2001. The Potential Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Air Pollution-Related Health Effects in the United States. Environ. Health Perspect. 109: 199-209.
Bingham, G., R. Bishop, M. Brody, D. Bromley, E. Clark,W. Cooper, R. Costanza, T. Hale, G. Hayden, S. Kellert, R. Norgaard, B. Norton, J. Payne, C. Russell, G. Suter. 1995. Issues in ecosystem valuation: improving information for decision making. Ecological Economics 14: 73-90.
Bock, C.E., Z.F. Jones, and J.H. Bock. 2008. The oasis effect: Response of birds to exurban development in a southwestern savanna. Ecological Applications 18: 1093-1106.
Bolund, P., and S. Hunhammar. 1999. Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecological Economics 29: 293-301.
Borenstein, S. 2008. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production. Center for the Study of Energy Markets Working Paper 176 (www.ucei.org).
Bornstein, R., and Q. Lin. 2000. Urban heat islands and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta: three case studies. Atmospheric Environment 34: 507-516.
Boumans, R., R. Costanza, J. Farley, M.A. Wilson, R. Portela, J. Rotmans, F. Villa, M. Grasso. 2002. Modeling the dynamics of the integrated earth system and the value of global ecosystem services using the GUMBO model. Ecological Economics 41: 529-560.
Bowker, J.M., and H.F. MacDonald. 1993. An economic analysis of localized pollution: rendering emissions in a residential setting. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 41: 45-59.
Brattebo, B.O., and D.B. Booth. 2003. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems. Water Research 37:4369- 4376.
British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2004. Residential wood burning emissions in British Columbia. ISBN 0-7726-5438-7.
Brohan, P., J.J. Kennedy, I. Harris, S.F.B. Tett, and P.D. Jones. 2006. Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: A new data set from 1850. J. Geophys. Res. 111:D12106.
Brunsdon, C., R. Gilroy, A.M. Pour, M. Roe, I. Thompson and T. Townshend. 1995. Safety, Crime, Vulnerability and Design: A Proposed Agenda of Study. School of Architecture, Planning & Landscape: Global Urban Research Unit. Working Paper No. 53. University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Burian, S.J., and J.M. Shepherd. 2005. Effect of urbanization on the diurnal rainfall pattern in Houston. Hydrol. Process. 19: 1089-1103.
Byrd, R.S., and J.P. Joad. 2006. Urban asthma. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 12:68-74.
Carle, M.V., P.N. Halpin, and C.A. Stow. 2005. Patterns of Watershed Urbanization and Impacts onWater Quality. J. AmericanWater Resources Association 41: 693-708.
Carreiro, M.M., and C.E. Tripler. 2005. Forest Remnants Along Urban-Rural Gradients: Examining Their Potential for Global Change Research. Ecosystems 8: 568–582.
Carrow, R.N. 1995. Drought Resistance Aspects of Turfgrasses in the Southeast: Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients. Crop Science 35: 1685–1690.
Carson, R.T., N.E. Flores, and N.F. Meade. 2001. Contingent Valuation: Controversies and Evidence. Environmental and Resource Economics 19173-210.
Carson, R.T., R.C. Mitchell, M. Hanemann, R.J. Kopp, S. Presser, P.A. Ruud. 2003. Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damages from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Environmental and Resource Economics 25: 257-286.
Carver, A.D., D.R. Unger, and C.L. Parks. 2004. Modeling Energy Savings from Urban Shade Trees: An Assessment of the CITYgreen Energy Conservation Module. Environmental Management 34: 650-655.
Catalano, S.M. 2006. Criminal Victimization, 2005. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin NCJ 214644.
Center for Disease Control. 1995. Heat-Related Illnesses and Deaths—United States, 1994-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44(25): 465– 468.
Cerveny, R.S., and R.C. Balling Jr. 1998. Weekly cycles of air pollutants, precipitation and tropical cyclones in the coastal NW Atlantic region. Nature 394:561-563.
Chameides, W.L., F. Fehsenfeld, M. O. Rodgers, C. Cardelino, J. Martinez, D. Parrish, W. Lonneman, D.R. Lawson, R.A. Rasmussen, P. Zimmerman, J. Greenberg, P. Middleton, and T.Wang. 1992. Ozone Precursor Relationships in the Ambient Atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 97: 6037-6055.
Chock, D.L., T.Y. Chang, S.L. Winkler, and B.I. Nance. 1999. The impact of an 8h ozone air quality standard on ROG and NOx controls in Southern California. Atmospheric Environment 33: 2471-2485.
Cleveland, C.C., A.R. Townsend, D.S. Schimel, H. Fisher, R.W. Howarth, L.O. Hedin, S.S. Perakis, E.F. Latty, J.C. von Fischer, A. Elseroad, M.F. Wasson. 1999. Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural systems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13: 623-645.
Cleveland, C.J., R. Costanza, C.A.S. Hall, R. Kaufmann. 1984. Energy and the U.S. Economy: A Biophysical Perspective. Science 225: 890-897.
Collins, J.P., A. Kinzig, N.B. Grimm, W.F. Fagan, D. Hope, J. Wu and E.T. Borer. 2000. A New Urban Ecology: Modeling human communities as integral parts of ecosystems poses special problems for the development and testing of ecological theory. American Scientist 88: 416-425.
Cooper, S.R., S.K. McGlothlin, M. Madritch, and D.L. Jones. 2004. Paleoecological Evidence of Human Impacts on the Neuse and Pamlico Estuaries of North Carolina, USA. Estuaries 27: 617-633.
Costanza, R. 2006. Nature: ecosystems without commodifying them. Nature 443:749.
Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. deGroot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253-260.
Costanza, R., and H.E. Daly. 1992. Natural Capital and Sustainable Development. Conservation Biology 6: 37-46.
Currie, D.J. 1991. Energy and Large-Scale Patterns of Animal- and Plant Species Richness. The American Naturalist 137: 27-49.
D’Amato, G., G. Liccardi, G. Frenguelli. 2007. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy. Allergy 62: 11-16.
Davis, R.E., P.C. Knappenberger, P.J. Michaels, andW.M. Novicoff. 2003. Changing Heat-Related Mortality in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 111: 1712-1718.
Davis, R.E., P.C. Knappenberger, P.J. Michaels, and W.M. Novicoff. 2004. Seasonality of climate–human mortality relationships in US cities and impacts of climate change. Climate Research 26: 61-76.
DeLucia, E.H., D.J. Moore, and R.J. Norby. 2005. Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: Implications for the global C cycle. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19: GB3006.
de Gouw, J.A., A.M. Middlebrook, C. Warneke, P.D. Goldan, W.C. Kuster, J.M. Roberts, F.C. Fehsenfeld, D.R.Worsnop, M.R. Canagaratna, A.A.P. Pszenny, W.C. Keene, M. Marchewka, S.B. Bertman, and T.S. Bates. 2005. Budget of organic carbon in a polluted atmosphere: Results from the New England Air Quality Study in 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 110: D16305.
DeWald, S., S. Josiah, and B. Erdkamp. 2005. Heating With Wood: Producing, Harvesting and Processing Firewood. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension Publication G1554.
Dindorf, T., U. Kuhn, L. Ganzeveld, G. Schebeske, P. Ciccioli, C. Holzke, R. K¨oble, G. Seufert, and J. Kesselmeier. 2006. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their potential impact on the European volatile organic compound budget. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D16305.
Dixon, P.G., and T.L. Mote. 2003. Patterns and Causes of Atlanta’s Urban Heat Island–Initiated Precipitation. Journal of Applied Meteorology 42: 1273- 1284.
Dockins, C., K. Maguire, N. Simon, and M. Sullivan. 2004. Value of Statistical Life Analysis and Environmental Policy: A White Paper. Environmental Ecolonomics Report #0483.
Donnelly, R., and J.M. Marzluff. 2006. Relative importance of habitat quantity, structure, and spatial pattern to birds in urbanizing environments. Urban Ecosystems 9:99-117
Downey, L. 2007. US Metropolitan-area Variation in Environmental Inequality Outcomes. Urban Studies 44: 953-977.
Druffel, E.R.M., S. Griffin, T.P. Guilderson, M. Kashgarian, J. Southon, D.P. Schrag. 2001. Changes of subtropical north Pacific radiocarbon and correlation with climate variability. Radiocarbon 43: 15-25.
Dukes, J.S. 2003. Burning buried sunshine: Human consumption of ancient solar energy. Climatic Change 61: 31-44.
Dukes, J.S., and H.A. Mooney. 2004. Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 77: 411-437.
Dunn, P.O., and D.W. Winkler. 1999. Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 266: 2487-2490.
Ebdon, J.S., A.M. Petrovic, and R.A. White. 1999. Interaction of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on Evapotranspiration Rate and Growth of Kentucky Bluegrass. Crop Sci. 39:209-218.
Ellis, C.D., S. Lee, B. Kweon. 2006. Retail land use, neighborhood satisfaction and the urban forest: an investigation into the moderating and mediating effects of trees and shrubs. Landscape and Urban Planning 74: 70-78.
Ezzati, M., A.B. Friedman, S.C. Kulkarni, C.J.L. Murray. 2008. The reversal of fortunes: Trends in county mortality and cross-county mortality disparities in the United States. PLoS Med 5(4): e66.
Fagan, W.F., E. Meir, S.S. Carroll and J. Wu. 2001. The ecology of urban landscapes: modeling housing starts as a density-dependent colonization process. Landscape Ecology 16: 33-39.
Falkowski, P., R.J. Scholes, E. Boyle, J. Canadell, D. Canfield, J. Elser, N. Gruber, K. Hibbard, P. Hgberg, S. Linder, F.T. Mackenzie, B. Moore III, T. Pedersen, Y. Rosenthal, S. Seitzinger, V. Smetacek, W. Steffen. 2000. The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of Earth as a System. Science 290: 291-296.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 2003. Review of world water resources by country. Report #23, Rome.
Farber, S.C., R. Costanza, M.A.Wilson. 2002. Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 41: 375392.
Farber, S., R. Costanza, D.L. Childers, J. Erickson, K. Gross, M. Grove, C.S. Hopkinson, J. Kahn, S. Pincetl, A. Troy, P. Warren, and M. Wilson. 2006. Linking Ecology and Economics for Ecosystem Management. BioScience 56: 117-129.
Felson, A.J., and S.T.A. Pickett. 2005. Designed experiments: new approaches to studying urban ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3: 549-556.
Flores, A., S.T.A. Pickett, W.C. Zipperer, R.V. Pouyat, and R. Pirani. 1998. Adopting a modern ecological view of the metropolitan landscape: the case of a greenspace system for the New York City region. Landscape and Urban Planning 39:295-308.
Forbes, S.A. 1880. The Food of Birds. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 1(3): 80-148. Franco, G., and A.H. Sanstad. 2006. Climate change and electricity demand in California. California Climate Change Center Report CEC-500-2005-201- SF.
Freer-Smith, P.H., A.A. El-Khatib, and G. Taylor. 2004. Capture of particulate pollution by trees: A comparison of species typical of semi-arid areas (Ficus nitida and Eucalyptus globulus) with European and North American species. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 155: 173-187.
Friedman, M.S., K.E. Powell, L. Hutwagner, L.M. Graham, and W.G. Teague. 2001. Impact of Changes in Transportation and Commuting Behaviors During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Air Quality and Childhood Asthma. Journal American Medical Association 285: 897-905.
Fuller, R.A., K.N. Irvine, P. Devine-Wright, P.H. Warren, and K.J. Gaston. 2007. Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biol. Lett. 3: 390-394.
Galan, I., A. Tobias, J.R. Banegas, and E. Aranguez. 2003. Short-term effects of air pollution on daily asthma emergency room admissions. Eur. Respir. J. 22: 802-808.
Galloway, J.N., J.D. Aber, J.W. Erisman, S.P. Seitzinger, R.W. Howarth, E.B. Cowling, and J. Cosby. 2003. The nitrogen cascade. Bioscience 53:341-356.
Galloway, J.N., and E.B. Cowling. 2002. Reactive Nitrogen and The World: 200 Years of Change. Ambio 31: 64–71.
Gates, D.M. 1965. Energy, plants, and ecology. Ecology 46:1-13.
Gates, D.M., H.J. Keegan, J.C. Schleter, and V.R. Weidner. 1965. Spectral Properties of Plants. Applied Optics 4: 11-20.
Georgi, N.J., and K. Zafiriadis. 2006. The impact of park trees on microclimate in urban areas. Urban Ecosystems 9:195-209
Geron, C., P. Harley, and A. Guenther. 2001. Isoprene emission capacity for US tree species. Atmospheric Environment 35: 3341-3352.
Gidlo¨f-Gunnarsson, A., E. O¨ hrstro¨m. 2007. Noise and well-being in urban residential environments: The potential role of perceived availability to nearby green areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 83: 115-126.
Gillani, N.V., and J.E. Pleim. 1996. Sub-grid-scale features of anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOC in the context of regional Eulerian models. Atmospheric Environment 30: 2043-2059.
Gillani N.V., S. Kohli, and W.E. Wilson. 1981. Gas-to particle conversion of sulfur in power plant plumes: I. Parameterization of the conversion rate for moderately polluted ambient conditions. Atmospheric Environment 15: 2293-2313.
Gillani N.V., and Y. Wu. 2003. Exploration of uncertainty in the simulation of power plant chemistry. Final Report of University of Alabama in Huntsville to EPA STAR Grant GR826239-01-0, April 2003.
Givoni, B. 1991. Impact of planted areas on urban environmental quality: a review. Atmospheric Environment 25B: 289-299.
Graham, R.L., L.L. Wright, and A.F. Turhollow. 1992. The potential for shortrotation woody crops to reduce US CO2 emissions. Climatic Change 22: 223-238.
Groffman, P.M., N.L. Law, K.T. Belt, L.E. Band, and G.T. Fisher. 2004. Nitrogen Fluxes and Retention in Urban Watershed Ecosystems. Ecosystems 7: 393- 403.
Grove, J.M., and W.R. Burch, Jr. 1997. A social ecology approach and applications of urban ecosystem and landscape analyses: a case study of Baltimore, Maryland. Urban Ecosystems 1: 259275.
Grove, J.M., A.R. Troy, J.P.M. O’Neil-Dunne, W.R. Burch Jr., M.L. Cadenasso, and S.T.A. Pickett. 2006. Characterization of Households and its Implications for the Vegetation of Urban Ecosystems. Ecosystems 9: 578-597.
Guenther, A., P. Zimmerman, and M. Wildermuth. 1994. Natural volatile organic compound emission rate estimates for U.S. woodland landscapes. Atmospheric Environment 28: 1197-1210.
Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. Palmer, and C. Geron. 2006. Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6: 3181-3210.
Guillebeau, P., N. Hinkle, and P. Roberts, eds. 2006. Summary of Losses from Insect Damage and Cost of Control in Georgia 2003. The University of Georgia, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Department of Entomology Special Committee on Insect Surveys and Losses, Publication #106.
Haire, S.L., C.E. Bockb, B.S. Cadea, B.C. Bennett. 2000. The role of landscape and habitat characteristics in limiting abundance of grassland nesting songbirds in an urban open space. Landscape and Urban Planning 48: 65-82.
Hall, D.C. 1998. Albedo and vegetation demand-side management options for warm climates. Ecological Economics 24: 31-45.
Hanemann, W.M. 1991. Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: How Much Can They Differ? The American Economic Review 81: 635-647.
Hanemann, W.M. 1994. Valuing the Environment Through Contingent Valuation. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 8: 19-43.
Hanemann, W.H. 2006. The economic conception of water, In: Water Crisis: myth or reality? Eds., P.P. Rogers, M.R. Llamas, L. Martinez-Cortina. (Taylor & Francis plc., London).
Hansen, A.J., R.L. Knight, J.M. Marzluff, S. Powell, K. Brown, P.H. Gude, and K. Jones. 2005. Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: Patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecological Applications 15: 1893-1905.
Harlan, S.L., A.J. Brazel, L. Prashad, W.L. Stefanov, L. Larsen. 2006. Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress. Social Science & Medicine 63: 2847-2863.
Harley, P., A. Guenther, and P. Zimmerman. 1997. Environmental controls over isoprene emission in deciduous oak canopies. Tree Physiology 17: 705-714.
Harrison, G.W. 1992. Valuing public goods with the contingent valuation method: a critique of Kahneman and Knetsch. J. Env. Econ. and Manangement 23: 248-257.
Hasenauer, H. 1997. Dimensional relationships of open-grown trees in Austria. Forest Ecology and Management 96: 197-206.
Hashimoto, M., T. Fukuda, T. Shimizu, S. Watanabe, S. Watanuki, Y. Eto, and M. Urashima. 2004. Influence of climate factors on emergency visits for childhood asthma attack. Pediatrics International 46: 48-52.
Heilman, J.L., and R.W. Gesch. 1991. Effects of Turfgrass Evaporation on External Temperatures of Buildings. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 43: 185-194.
Heynen, N., H.A. Perkins, and P. Roy. 2006. The Political Ecology of Uneven Urban Green Space: The Impact of Political Economy on Race and Ethnicity in Producing Environmental Inequality in Milwaukee. Urban Affairs Review 42: 3-25.
Hicke, J.A., G.P. Asner, J.T. Randerson, C. Tucker, S. Los, R. Birdsey, J.C. Jenkins, and C. Field. 2002. Trends in North American net primary productivity derived from satellite observations, 1982–1998. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16: 1018.
Hofmockel, K.S., and W.H. Schlesinger. 2007. Carbon Dioxide Effects on Heterotrophic Dinitrogen Fixation in a Temperate Pine Forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71:140-144.
Hoover, M.D. 1944. Effect of removal of forest vegetation upon water-yields. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union pp. 969–977.
Hope, D., C. Gries,W. Zhu,W.F. Fagan, C.L. Redman, N.B. Grimm, A.L. Nelson, C. Martin, and A. Kinzig. 2003. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 100: 8788-8792.
Hoppe, R.A., P. Korb, E.J. O’Donoghue, and D.E. Banker. 2007. Structure and Finances of U.S. Farms: Family Farm Report, 2007 Edition. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Infomation Bulletin Number 24.
Horowitz, J.K., and K.E. McConnell. 2002. A Review of WTA/WTP Studies. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 44: 426-447.
Houck, J.E., P.E. Tiegs, R.C. McCrillis, C. Keithley, and J. Crouch. 1998. Air Emissions from Residential Heating: The Wood Heating Option Put into Environmental Perspective, in 8th AWMAConference 8-10 December 1998: The Emission Inventory: Living in a Global Environment, New Orleans, pp. 373-384.
Howard, L. 1833. “The Climate of London, Deduced from Meteorological Observations, Made in the Metropolis, and at Various Places around it.” Harvey and Darton (London).
Huang, Y.J., H. Akbari, H. Taha, and A. Rosenfeld. 1987. The potential of vegetation in reducing summer cooling loads in residential buildings. Climate and Applied Meteorology 26: 1103-1116.
Jo, H.-K., and E.G. McPherson. 1995. Carbon Storage and Flux in Urban Residential Greenspace. Journal of Environmental Management 45: 109-133.
Kalkstein, L.S., and R.E. Davis. 1989. Weather and Human Mortality: An evaluation of Demographic and interregional responses in the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 79: 44-64.
Kalkstein, L.S., and J.S. Greene. 1997. An Evaluation of Climate/Mortality Relationships in Large U.S. Cities and the Possible Impacts of a Climate Change. Environmental Health Perspectives 105: 84-93.
Karl, T.R., H.F. Diaz, and G. Kukla. 1988: Urbanization: its detection and effect in the United States climate record. J. Climate 1:1099-1123.
Karnosky, D.F., J.M. Skelly, K.E. Percy, A.H. Chappelka. 2007. Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests. Environmental Pollution 147: 489-506.
Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, G.E. Likens, K.T. Belt, W.P. Stack, V.R. Kelly, L.E. Band, and G.T. Fisher. 2005. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102: 13517-13520.
Kaushal, S.S., P.M. Groffman, L.E. Band, C.A. Shields, R.P. Morgan, M.A. Palmer, K.T. Belt, C.M. Swan, S.E.G. Findlay, and G.T. Fisher. 2008. Interaction between urbanization and climate variability amplifies watershed nitrate export in Maryland, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42: 5872-5878.
Kaye, J.P., R.L. McCulley, and I.C. Burke. 2005. Carbon fluxes, nitrogen cycling, and soil microbial communities in adjacent urban, native and agricultural ecosystems. Global Change Biology 11: 575-587.
Keeling, C.D., S.C. Piper, R.B. Bacastow, M. Wahlen, T.P. Whorf, M. Heimann, and H.A. Meijer. 2005. “Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 exchange with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000: observations and carbon cycle implications”, pp. 83-113 in “A History of Atmospheric CO2 and its effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems”, eds., Ehleringer, J.R., T.E. Cerling, M.D. Dearing. Springer Verlag, New York.
Kiehl, J.T., and K.E. Trenberth. 1997. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78: 197-208.
Kinney, P.L., K. Knowlton, and C. Hogrefe. 2005. Ozone: Kinney et al. Respond. Environmental Health Perspectives 113: A87.
Kjelgren, R., and T. Montague. 1998. Urban tree transpiration over turf and asphalt surfaces. Atmospheric Environment 32: 35-41.
Knight, A.J. 2008. “Bats, snakes and spiders, Oh my!” How aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and other concepts predict support for species protection. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28: 94-103.
Knowlton, K., J.E. Rosenthal, C. Hogrefe, B. Lynn, S. Gaffin, R. Goldberg, C. Rosenzweig, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, P.L. Kinney. 2004. Assessing Ozone- Related Health Impacts under a Changing Climate. Environmental Health Perspectives 112: 1557-1563.
Krajicek, J.E., K.A. Brinkman, and S.F. Gingrich. 1961. Crown competition: A measure of density. Forest Science 7:35-42.
Kuo, F.E., and W.C. Sullivan. 2001a. Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime? Environment and Behavior 33: 343-367.
Kuo, F.E., and W.C. Sullivan. 2001b. Aggression and Violence in the Inner City: Effects of Environment via Mental Fatigue. Environment and Behavior 33: 543-571.
Kuttler, W., and A. Strassburger. 1999. Air quality measurements in urban green areas — a case study. Atmospheric Environment 33: 4101-4108.
Lal, R. 2003. Global Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22:151-184.
Levin, I., and V. Hesshaimer. 2000. Radiocarbon: a unique tracer of global carbon cycle dynamics. Radiocarbon 42: 69-80.
Lerdau, M., A. Guenther, R. Monson. 1997. Plant Production and Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds. BioScience 47: 373-383.
Likens, G.E., D.C. Buso and T.J. Butler. 2005. Long-term relationships between SO2 and NOx emissions and SO2- 4 and NO- 3 concentration in bulk deposition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. J. Environ. Monit. 7: 964- 968.
Lin, S., S.-A. Hwang, C. Pantea, C. Kielb, and E. Fitzgerald. 2004. Childhood Asthma Hospitalizations and Ambient Air Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations in Bronx County, New York. Archives of Environmental Health 59: 266-275.
Liu, G.C., J.S. Wilson, R. Qi, J. Ying. 2007. Green Neighborhoods, Food Retail and Childhood Overweight: Differences by Population Density. American Journal of Health Promotion 21: 317-325.
Lovett, G.M. 1994. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients and pollutants in North America: an ecological perspective. Ecological Applications 4: 629-650.
Lu, J., G. Sun, S.G. McNulty, and D.M. Amatya. 2003. Modeling actual evapotranspiration from forested watersheds across the southeastern United States. Journal of American Water Resources Association. 39: 887-896.
Lubowski, R.N., M. Vesterby, S. Bucholtz, A. Baez, and M.J. Roberts. 2006. Major Uses of Land in The United States, 2002. USDA Economic Research Service Bulletin 14.
Luria, M., R.E. Imhoff, R.J. Valente, and R.L. Tanner. 2003. Ozone yields and production efficiencies in a large power plant plume. Atmospheric Environment 37: 3593-3603.
Maantay, J. 2007. Asthma and air pollution in the Bronx: Methodological and data considerations in using GIS for environmental justice and health research. Health and Place 13: 32-56.
MacDonald, J., R. Hoppe, and D. Banker. 2006. Growing Farm Size and the Distribution of Farm Payments. USDA Economic Brief #6
Marland, G., R. Andres, and T. Boden. 2008. Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil- Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2005. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Marvier, M., J. Grant, P. Kareiva. 2006. Nature: poorest may see it as their economic rival. Nature 443:749-750.
Maurellis, A., and J. Tennyson. 2003. The climatic effects of water vapour. Physics World, May 2003.
McCarthy, M.A., C.J. Thompson, and N.S.G. Williams. 2006. Logic for Designing Nature Reserves for Multiple Species. Am. Nat. 167: 717-727.
McCauley, D.J. 2006. Selling out on nature. Nature 443:27-28.
McDonald, A.G., W.J. Bealey, D. Fowler, U. Dragosits, U. Skiba, R.I. Smith, R.G. Donovan, H.E. Brett, C.N. Hewitt, and E. Nemitz. 2007. Quantifying the effect of urban tree planting on concentrations and depositions of PM10 in two UK conurbations. Atmospheric Environment 41: 8455-8467.
McGeehin, M.A., and M. Mirabelli. 2001. The Potential Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Temperature-Related Morbidity and Mortality in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 185-189.
McPherson, E.G. 2001. Sacramento’s parking lot shading ordinance: environmental and economic costs of compliance. Landscape and Urban Planning 57: 105-123.
McPherson, E.G, K.I. Scott, and J.R. Simpson. 1998. Estimating cost effectiveness of residential yard trees for improving air quality in Sacramento, California, using existing models. Atmospheric Environment 32: 75-84.
McPherson, E.G, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, S.E. Maco, and Q. Xiao. 2005. Municipal Forest Benefits and Costs in Five US Cities. Journal of Forestry 103: 411-416.
McPherson, E.G, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, and Q. Xiao. 1999. Tree Guidelines for San Joaquin Valley Communities. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.
McPherson, E.G, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, S.L. Gardner, K.E. Vargas, S.E. Maco, and Q. Xiao. 2006. Piedmont Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs, and Strategic Planting. USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Urban and Community Forestry Program.
Mennis, J. 2006. Socioeconomic-Vegetation Relationships in Urban, Residential Land: The Case of Denver, Colorado. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 72: 911-921.
Michael, S.E., R.B. Hull, and D.L. Zahm. 2001. Environmental Factors Influencing Auto Burglary: A Case Study. Environment and Behavior 33: 368-388.
Minino, A.M., M.P. Heron, S.L. Murphy, and K.D. Kochanek. 2007. Deaths: Final Data for 2004. National vital statistics reports; Vol. 55, No. 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Mitchell, G., and D. Dorling. 2003. An environmental justice analysis of British air quality. Environment and Planning A 35: 909-929.
Mitchell, R., and F. Popham. 2007. Greenspace, urbanity and health: relationships in England. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 61: 681-683.
Moore, K., R. Neugebauer, F. Lurmann, J. Hall, V. Brajer, S. Alcorn, and I. Tager. 2008. Ambient Ozone Concentrations Cause Increased Hospitalizations for Asthma in Children: An 18-Year Study in Southern California. Environmental Health Perspectives 116: 1063-1070.
National Agricultural Statistics Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, www- .nass.usda.gov/QuickStats. National Research Council, Committee on Reducing Stormwater Contributions to Water Pollution, 2008. Urban Stormwater Management in the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Neil, K., and J. Wu. 2006. Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review. Urban Ecosyst. 9:243-257.
Nobel, P.S. 1991. Physicochemical and environmental plant physiology. Academic Press, Inc. (San Diego).
Nowak, D.J. 1994. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide reduction by Chicago’s urban forest. In: McPherson, E.G., D.J. Nowak, R.A. Rowntree, Eds., Chicago’s Urban Forest Ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-186, Radnor, PA, pp. 83-94.
Nowak, D.J., and D.E. Crane. 2002. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution 116: 381-389.
Nowak, D.J., D.E. Crane, and J.F. Dwyer. 2002a. Compensatory Value of Urban Trees in the U.S. Journal of Arboriculture 28: 194-199.
Nowak, D.J., J.C. Stevens, S.M. Sisinni, and C.J. Luley. 2002b. Effects of urban tree management and species selection on atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Arboriculture 28: 113-122.
Oke, T.R. 1973. City size and the urban heat island. Atmospheric Environment 7: 769-779.
Oke, T.R. 1982. The energetic basis of the urban heat island. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 108: 1-24.
Olszyna, K.J., M. Luria, and J.F. Meagher. 1997. The correlation of temperature and rural ozone levels in southeastern U.S.A. Atmospheric Environment 31: 3011-3022.
Orendovici, T., J.M. Skelly, J.A. Ferdinand, J.E. Savage, M.-J. Sanz, G.C. Smith. 2003. Response of native plants of northeastern United States and southern Spain to ozone exposures; determining exposure/response relationships. Environmental Pollution 125: 31-40.
Ostfeld, R.S., and F. Keesing. 2000. Biodiversity and disease risk: the case of Lyme disease. Conservation Biology 14:722-728.
Pan, Y., R. Birdsey, J. Hom, K. McCullough, K. Clark. 2006. Improved estimates of net primary productivity from MODIS satellite data at regional and local scales. Ecological Applications 16: 125-132.
Parker, D.S., S.F. Barkaszi, Jr., S. Chandra, and D.J. Beal. 1995. Measured cooling energy savings from reflective roofing systems in Florida: field and laboratory research results, Proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VI, December 4-8, 1995, Clearwater, FL. (cited in Akbari et al. 2001.)
Parker, D.E. 2006. A Demonstration That Large-Scale Warming Is Not Urban. Journal of Climate 19: 2882-2895.
Parker, D., J. Sonne, J. Sherwin. 1997. Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Retail Strip Mall. Final Report to the Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida.
Parker, D., J. Sonne, J. Sherwin. 2003. Flexible roofing facility: 2002 Summer test results. Florida Solar Energy Center Publication FSEC-CR-1411-03.
Parker, J.H. 1981. Use of Landscaping for Energy Conservation. Department of Physical Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL (cited in Akbari 2002).
Parris, K.M., and D.L. Hazell. 2005. Biotic effects of climate change in urban environments: The case of the grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Melbourne, Australia. Biological Conservation 124: 267–276.
Parris, K.M., and A. Schneider 2008. Impacts of traffic noise and traffic volume on birds of roadside habitats. Ecology and Society 14: 29.
Parris, K.M., M. Velik-Lord, and J.M.A. North. 2009. Frogs call at a higher pitch in traffic noise. Ecology and Society 14: 25.
Parrish, D.D., J.S. Holloway, M. Trainer, P.C. Murphy, G.L. Forbes, F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1993. Export of North American Ozone Pollution to the North Atlantic Ocean. Science 259: 1436-1439.
Peel, J.L., P.E. Tolbert, M. Klein, K.B. Metzger, W.D. Flanders, K. Todd, J.A. Mulholland, P.B. Ryan, H. Frumkin. 2005. Ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits. Epidemiology 16: 164–174.
Perkins, H.A., N. Heynen, and J. Wilson. 2004. Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests. Cities 21: 291-299.
Peters, R.H. Ecological implications of body size. 1983. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK.
Peterson, T.C. 2003. Assessment of Urban Versus Rural In Situ Surface Temperatures in the Contiguous United States: No Difference Found. Journal of Climate 16: 2941-2959.
Peterson, T.C., and T.W. Owen. 2005. Urban Heat Island Assessment: Metadata Are Important. Journal of Climate 18: 2637-2646.
Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. P´epin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399:429-436.
Pickett, S.T.A., and M.L. Cadenasso. 2006. Advancing urban ecological studies: Frameworks, concepts, and results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Austral Ecology 31: 114-125.
Pickett, S.T.A., M.L. Cadenasso, J.M. Grove, C.H. Nilon, R.V. Pouyat, W.C. Zipperer, and R. Costanza. 2001. Urban Ecological Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32:127-57.
Pleijel, H., H. Danielsson, L. Emberson, M.R. Ashmore, and G. Mills. 2007. Ozone risk assessment for agricultural crops in Europe: Further development of stomatal flux and flux—response relationships for European wheat and potato. Atmospheric Environment 41: 3022-3040.
Pomerantz, M., H. Akbari, P. Berdahl, S.J. Konopacki, H. Taha, and A.H. Rosenfeld. 1999. Reflective surfaces for cooler buildings and cities. Philosophical Magazine B 79: 1457-1476.
Potter, C., S. Klooster, R. Nemani, V. Genovese, S. Hiatt, M. Fladeland, and P. Gross. 2006. Estimating Carbon Budgets for U.S. Ecosystems. Eos 87: 85-96.
Pouyat, R.V., I.D. Yesilonis, and D.J. Nowak. 2006. Carbon Storage by Urban Soils in the United States. J. Environ. Qual. 35: 1566-1575.
Pozzi, F., and C. Small. 2001. Exploratory analysis of suburban land cover and population density in the U.S.A., Proceedings of the IEEE Joint Workshop on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion over Urban Areas, 08–09 November, Rome, Italy, pp. 250–254.
Pozzi, F., and C. Small. 2005. Analysis of Urban Land Cover and Population Density in the United States. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 71: 719–726.
Presterl, T., S. Groh, M. Landbeck, G. Seitz, W. Schmidt and H.H. Geiger. 2002. Nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of European maize hybrids devel oped under conditions of low and high nitrogen input. Plant Breeding 121: 480-486.
Price, L., C. Marnay, J. Sathaye, S. Murtishaw, D. Fisher, A. Phadke, and G. Franco 2002. The California Climate Action Registry: Development of Methodologies for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation, in Proceedings of the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (Pacific Grove, CA).
Qian, Y., and R.F. Follett. 2002. Assessing Soil Carbon Sequestration in Turfgrass Systems Using Long-Term Soil Testing Data. Agron. J. 94:930-935.
Rees, W.E. 1992. Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out. Environment and Urbanization 4: 121-130.
Rees, W.E. 1998. How should a parasite value its host? Ecological Economics 25: 4952. Reid, W.V. 2006. Nature: the many benefits of ecosystem services. Nature 443:749.
Riley, S.P.D., G.T. Busteed, L.B. Kats, T.L. Vandergon, L.F.S. Lee, R.G. Dagit, J.L. Kerby, R.N. Fisher, R.M. Sauvajot. 2005. Effects of Urbanization on the Distribution and Abundance of Amphibians and Invasive Species in Southern California Streams. Conservation Biology 19: 1894-1907.
Roetzer, T., M. Wittenzeller, H. Haeckel, J. Nekovar. 2000. Phenology in central Europe: differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas. Int. J. Biometeorol. 44:60-66.
Rojstaczer, S., S.M. Sterling, N.J. Moore. 2001. Human Appropriation of Photosynthesis Products. Science 294: 2549-2552.
Ryerson, T.B., M. Trainer, J.S. Holloway, D.D. Parrish, L.G. Huey, D.T. Sueper, G.J. Frost, S.G. Donnelly, S. Schauffler, E.L. Atlas,W.C. Kuster, P.D. Goldan, G. Hubler, J.F. Meagher, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 2001. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies. Science 292: 719-723.
Scharenbroch, B.C., J.E. Lloyd, and J.L. Johnson-Maynard. 2005. Distinguishing urban soils with physical, chemical, and biological properties. Pedobiologia 49: 283-296.
Schlesinger, W.H. 1997. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change. Academic Press (San Diego, CA).
Schlesinger, W.H., and W.A. Reiners. 1974. Deposition of water and cations on artificial foliar collectors in fir krummholz of New England mountains. Ecology 55:378-385.
Schmer, M.R., K.P. Vogel, R.B. Mitchell, and R.K. Perrin. 2008. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:464-469.
Schor, J.B. 2005. Prices and quantities: Unsustainable consumption and the global economy. Ecological Economics 55: 309-320.
Schroeder, H.W., and L.M. Anderson. 1984. Perception of personal safety in urban recreation sites. Journal of Leisure Research 16: 178-194.
Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas and A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Global Change Biology 12: 343-351.
Seinfeld, J.H., and S.N. Pandis. 2006. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Seneviratne, S.I., D. Luthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schar. 2006. Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature 443:205-209.
Sexton, J.O., D.L. Urban, C. Song. In review. Signature extension of the 2001 National Landcover Dataset (NLCD 2001) Tree Canopy Layer for Piedmont North Carolina. Remote Sensing of Environment. Shackleton, N.J. 2000. The 100,000-Year Ice-Age Cycle Identified and Found to Lag Temperature, Carbon Dioxide, and Orbital Eccentricity. Science 289: 1897–1902.
Shafik, N., and S. Bandyopadhyay. 1992. Economic Growth and environmental quality: time-series and cross-country evidence. World Development Report WPS-904.
Shimano, K. 1997. Analysis of the Relationship between DBH and Crown Projection Area Using a New Model. J. For. Res. 2: 237-242.
Sillman, S. 1999. The relation between ozone, NOx and hydrocarbons in urban and polluted rural environments. Atmospheric Environment 33: 1821-1845.
Simpson, J.R. 1998. Urban forest impacts on regional cooling and heating energy use: Sacramento county case study. Journal of Arboriculture 24: 201-214.
Sister C., J.Wilson, and J.Wolch. 2007. The Green Visions Plan for 21st Century Southern California. 15. Park Congestion and Strategies to Increase Park Eq uity, University of Southern California GIS Research Laboratory and Center for Sustainable Cities, Los Angeles, California.
Smith, K.E.C., and K.C. Jones. 2000. Particles and vegetation: Implications for the transfer of particle-bound organic contaminants to vegetation. The Science of the Total Environment 246: 207-236.
Smith, W.R., R.M. Farrar Jr., P.A. Murphy, J.L. Yeiser, R.S. Meldahl, and J.S. Kush. 1992. Crown and basal area relationships of open-grown southern pines for modeling competition and growth. Can. J. Forest Res. 22: 341- 347.
Souch, C., and S. Grimmond. 2006. Applied climatology: urban climate. Progress in Physical Geography 30: 270-279. Spash, C.L., and A. Vatn. 2006. Transferring environmental value estimates: Issues and alternatives. Ecological Economics 60: 379-388.
Spiro, T.G., and W.M. Stigliani. 2003. Chemistry of the Environment, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall.
St. John, J.C., and W.L. Chameides. 1997. Climatology of Ozone Exceedences in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area: 1-Hour vs 8-Hour Standard and the Role of Plume Recirculation Air Pollution Episodes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31: 2797-2804.
Stallins, J.A. 2004. Characteristics of urban lightning hazards for Atlanta, Georgia. Climatic Change 66: 137-150.
Stallins, J.A., M.L. Bentley, and L.S. Rose. 2006. Cloud-to-ground flash patterns for Atlanta, Georgia (USA) from 1992 to 2003. Climate Research 30:99– 112.
Stallins, J.A., and M.L. Bentley. 2006. Urban lightning climatology and GIS: An analytical framework from the case study of Atlanta, Georgia. Applied Geography 26:242–259.
Sullivan, W.C., F.E. Kuo, and S.F. Depooter. 2004. The Fruit of Urban Nature: Vital Neighborhood Spaces. Environment and Behavior 36: 678-700.
Sun, H.L., M.C. Chou, K.H. Lue. 2006. The relationship of air pollution to ED visits for asthma differ between children and adults. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 24: 709-713.
Sutherland, W.J., S. Armstrong-Brown, P.R. Armsworth, T. Brereton, J. Brickland, C.D. Campbell, D.E. Chamberlain, A.I. Cooke, N.K. Dulvy, N.R. Du sic, M. Fitton, R.P. Freckleton, H.C.J. Godfray, N. Grout, H.J. Harvey, C. Hedley, J.J. Hopkins, N.B. Kift, J. Kirby, W.E. Kunin, D.W. Macdonald, B. Marker, M. Naura, A.R. Neale, T. Oliver, D. Osborn, A.S. Pullin, M.E.A. Shardlow, D.A. Showler, P.L. Smith, R.J. Smithers, J.L. Solandt, J. Spencer, C.J. Spray, C.D. Thomas, J. Thompson, S.E. Webb, D.W. Yalden, and A.R. Watkinson. 2006. The identification of 100 ecological questions of high policy relevance in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 617-627.
Sutton, P.C., and R. Costanza. 2002. Global estimates of market and non-market values derived from nighttime satellite imagery, land cover, and ecosystem service valuation. Ecological Economics 41: 509-527.
Svedsater, H. 2003. Economic valuation of the environment: How citizens make sense of contingent valuation questions. Land Economics 79: 122-135.
Swartz, J., P. Michaels, and R.E. Davis. 2005. Ozone: Unrealistic Scenarios. Environmental Health Perspectives 113: A86-A87.
Taha, H., H. Akbari, and A. Rosenfeld. 1991. Heat Island and Oasis Effects of Vegetative Canopies: Micro-Meteorological Field-Measurements. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 44, 123-138.
Talbot, J.F., and R. Kaplan. 1984. Needs and fears: the response to trees and nature in the inner city. Journal of Arboriculture 10:222-228.
Taylor, A.F., F.E. Kuo, and W.C. Sullivan. 2002. Views of nature and selfdiscipline: evidence from inner city children. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22: 49-63.
Taylor, G.E., D.W. Johnson, C.P. Andersen. 1994. Air Pollution and Forest Ecosystems: A Regional to Global Perspective. Ecological Applications 4: 662-689.
Thompson, C.W. 2002. Urban open space in the 21st century. Landscape and Urban Planning 60: 59-72.
Tolbert, P.E., J.A. Mulholland, D.L. Macintosh, F. Xu, D. Daniels, O.J. Devine, B.P. Carlin, M. Klein, J. Dorley, A.J. Butler, D.F. Nordenberg, H. Frumkin, P.B. Ryan, and M.C. White. 2000. Air Quality and Pediatric Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in Atlanta, Georgia. American Journal of Epidemiology 151: 798-810.
Troy, A.R., J.M. Grove, J.P.M. O’Neil-Dunne, S.T.A. Pickett, M.L. Cadenasso. 2007. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands. Environ. Manage. 40:394-412.
Vitousek, P.M., P.R. Ehrlich, A.H. Ehrlich, P.A. Matson. 1986. Human Appropriation of the Products of Photosynthesis. BioScience 36: 368-373.
Vogel, K.P., J.J. Brejda, D.T. Walters, and D.R. Buxton. 2002. Switchgrass Biomass Production in the Midwest USA: Harvest and Nitrogen Management. Agron. J. 94: 413-420.
Vose, J.M., G.J. Harvey, K.J. Elliott, B.D. Clinton. 2003. Measuring and Modeling Tree Stand Level Transpiration Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control of Contaminants. McCutcheon, S.C., and J.L. Schnoor, eds. pp. 263-282.
Wackernagel, M., N.B. Schulz, D. Deumling, A.C. Linares, M. Jenkins, V. Kapos, C. Monfreda, J. Loh, N. Myers, R. Norgaard, and J. Randers. 2002. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99: 9266-9271.
Walsh, C.J., A.H. Roy, J.W. Feminella, P.D. Cottingham, P.M. Groffman, R.P. Morgan. 2005a. The urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24: 706-723.
Walsh, C.J., T.D. Fletcher, and A.R. Ladson. 2005b. Stream restoration in urban catchments through redesigning stormwater systems: looking to the catchment to save the stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24:690-705.
Warneke, C., S.A. McKeen, J.A. de Gouw, P.D. Goldan, W.C. Kuster, J.S. Holloway, E.J.Williams, B.M. Lerner, D.D. Parrish, M. Trainer, F.C. Fehsenfeld, S. Kato, E.L. Atlas, A. Baker, and D.R. Blake. 2007. Determination of urban volatile organic compound emission ratios and comparison with an emissions database. J. Geophys. Res., 112: D10S47.
Weiss, P.T., J.S. Gulliver, and A.J. Erickson. 2007. Cost and Pollutant Removal of Storm-Water Treatment Practices. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 133: 218-229.
Weng, Q., D. Lu, J. Schubring. 2004. Estimation of land surface temperature–vegetation abundance relationship for urban heat island studies. Remote Sensing of Environment 89: 467-483.
White, K.D. 1970. Fallowing, Crop Rotation, and Crop Yields in Roman Times. Agricultural History 44: 281–290.
White, M.C., R.A. Etzel, W.D. Wilcox, and C. Lloyd. 1994. Exacerbations of childhood asthma and ozone pollution in Atlanta. Environmental Research 65: 56-68.
Wilson, J.S., M. Clay, E. Martin, D. Stuckey, K. Vedder-Risch. 2003. Evaluating environmental influences of zoning in urban ecosystems with remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment 86: 303-321.
Wilson, W.G. 2000. Simulating Ecological and Evolutionary Systems in C. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge).
Wolch, J., J.P. Wilson, and J. Fehrenbach. 2005. Parks and park funding in Los Angeles: An equity-mapping analysis. Urban Geography 26: 4-35.
Wullschleger, S.D., F.C. Meinzer, and R.A. Vertessy. 1998. A review of wholeplant water use studies in trees. Tree Physiology 18: 499-512.
Zanobetti, A., and J. Schwartz. 2006. Air pollution and emergency admissions in Boston, MA. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60: 890-895.
Ziska, L.H., D.E. Gebhard, D.A. Frenz, S. Faulkner, B.D. Singer, and J.G. Straka. 2003. Cities as harbingers of climate change: Common ragweed, urbanization, and public health. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111:290-295.