Open space means exactly what it sounds like:  forests, pastures, and fields in rural areas, and in urban environments,  anything ranging from small gardens to large parks. Open space plays important roles in both vast forested watersheds and congested urban areas where even a single tree can brighten someone’s day. Urban open space reflects the aspects of the natural environment within cities.

Constructed Climates clearly refers to how we change the climate in the cities we construct from the climates of natural ecosystems. I show examples of how our construction also changes climates at all scales, from the building site to the city to the region, continent, and globe. A preliminary book title was People, Plants, and Pollution, and remains the name of my undergraduate course, where People reflects my focus on cities and their inhabitants, Plants reflect nature in cities, ranging from single trees to large reserves, and Pollution reflects all the aspects of the altered urban environment, including air, water, and heat.