Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution in press

One Hundred and Seventeen Clades of Euagarics

Jean-Marc Moncalvo1, Rytas Vilgalys1, Scott A. Redhead2, James E. Johnson1, Timothy Y. James1, M.Catherine Aime3, Valerie Hofstetter4, Sebastiaan J. W. Verduin5, Ellen Larsson6, Timothy J. Baroni7, R. Greg Thorn8, Stig Jacobsson6, Heinz Clémençon4, and Orson K. Miller Jr.3

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham NC27708, U.S.A.
2  Systematic Mycology and Botany Section, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0C6, Canada
3  Department of Biology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061, U.S.A.
Department of Ecology, Lausanne University, Switzerland.
Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Universiteit Leiden branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands, and Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
6 Botanical Institute, Göteborg University,SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
7  Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY College at Cortland, Cortland, NY 13045, U.S.A.
8  Department of Plant Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7, Canada

Abstract.-  This study provides a first broad systematic treatment of the euagarics as they have recently emerged in phylogenetic systematics.  The sample consists of 877 homobasidiomycetes taxa, and includes approximately one tenth (ca. 700 species) of the known number of species of gilled mushrooms that were traditionally classified in the order Agaricales.  About 1,000 nucleotide sequences at the 5' end of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene (nLSU) were produced for each taxon.  Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequence data employed unequally weighted parsimony and bootstrap methods.  Clades revealed by the analyzes support the recognition of eight major groups of homobasidiomycetes that cut across traditional lines of classification, in agreement with other recent phylogenetic studies.  Gilled fungi comprise the majority of species in the euagarics clade.  However, the recognition of a monophyletic euagarics results in the exclusion from the clade of several groups of gilled fungi that have been traditionally classified in the Agaricales, and also necessitates the inclusion of several clavaroid, poroid, secotioid, gasteroid, and reduced forms that were traditionally classified in other basidiomycete orders.  117 monophyletic groups (clades) of euagarics can be recognized on the basis of nLSU phylogeny.  Though many clades correspond to traditional taxonomic groups, many do not.  Newly discovered phylogenetic affinities include for instance relationships of the true puffballs (Lycoperdales) with Agaricaceae, of Panellus and the poroid fungi Dictyopanus and Favolaschia with Mycena, and of the reduced fungus Caripia with Gymnopus.  Several clades are best supported by ecological, biochemical, or trophic habits rather than by morphological similarities. 
Key words:  nuclear large ribosomal subunit RNA, phylogeny, unequally weighted parsimony, Agaricales, Homobasidiomycetes.

Figure 2:  Summary of the results of the phylogenetic analyses (see text).  Branches in solid line were present in both the MPF tree and bootstrap tree.  Shaded branches were present in either the MPF (MP) or the BS tree, as indicated.  Bootstrap values greater than 40% are shown above branches.  To distinguish between clade names and traditional taxonomic names, clade names are written in lowercase, never italicized, and preceded with the symbol /.

View the data matrix in a new window, or download the PAUP file

Appendix: List of taxa and origin of sequences (download as PDF file)

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